Can States File For Bankruptcy?

The financial pressure of the coronavirus pandemic has forced many families and businesses to consider filing for bankruptcy. It has also sparked a hot debate about the ability of governmental bodies to file for bankruptcy protection. If cities, towns, counties, and school districts are allowed to file for bankruptcy, why not states? 

What Does The Law Saw? 

Right now, the answer to this question is that the bankruptcy law does not apply to states. SInce the late 1930s, federal bankruptcy law has allowed “municipalities” to file for bankruptcy under Chapter 9 of the bankruptcy code. The term “municipality” is defined in the bankruptcy code as a “political subdivision or public agency or instrumentality of a state.” This means cities, townships, school districts, and other government units like sewer and water districts can file, but a state cannot. A state, by definition, cannot be a subdivision, agency, or instrumentality of itself. 

Laws Can Be Changed 

However, Congress could change the bankruptcy code to allow states to file. Policymakers are always tinkering with the code, as we saw last year with the passage of new rules that apply when small businesses file under the new Subchapter V. It is possible that the financial crisis brought on by the COVID-19 pandemic will inspire Congress to pass a new law that allows states to file for bankruptcy. 

Possible, but unlikely. 

As the Council of State Governments points out, “the mere existence of a federal law allowing states to declare bankruptcy would increase interest rates, rattle investors, raise the costs of state government, create more volatility in financial markets, and erode state sovereignty under the 10th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution.” 

Those are some pretty significant downsides. 

Bad For Them, But Good For Me? 

If allowing states to file for bankruptcy is so bad, why are families and businesses encouraged to seek bankruptcy protection? Part of the answer lies in the scale of the issue. A single family or business is not at all equivalent to a state. Comparing the two is like comparing apples and toothpaste. 

From a more practical point of view, the benefits of bankruptcy far outweigh the downsides for families and businesses in financial distress. Bankruptcy offers a fresh start to individuals and families who file under Chapters 7 or 13, and businesses who file under Chapters 7 or 11. While it may be more difficult to access credit post-bankruptcy, and some business opportunities may be out of reach, getting out of a financial hole and back on solid ground is typically worth it. 

Experienced Attorneys Serving The Milwaukee Area

Milwaukee area families and businesses who are facing financial difficulties, and beginning to question what their options are, should not hesitate to make an appointment with one of the experienced bankruptcy attorneys on the Hanson & Payne team. We can offer advice on what options are available, and help find a path forward. 

Why Was The DOJ Involved In The Dean Foods Bankruptcy?

The bankruptcy of Dean Foods, the largest milk processor in the country, was big news in Wisconsin. The dairy giant filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy last November, and has just recently sold off the remainder of its assets. The liquidation took a bit longer than expected because the federal Department of Justice (DOJ) was concerned that the purchase of certain Dean assets by the Dairy Farmers of America Inc. (DFA) and Prairie Farms Dairy would violate antitrust laws

Dean Foods Bankruptcy

When Dean Foods filed for bankruptcy there was significant concern that some of Wisconsin’s already-hurting dairy farmers would be put out of business themselves if Dean plants in the state shut down. As we have discussed on this blog multiple times, the bankruptcy of one company in a supply chain can often break other links in the chain as well. 

Fortunately, Dean’s now-former plants have stayed open because Dean was able to secure financing to continue operations until it was able to sell off its assets. However, the sale of those assets took a bit longer than expected when the federal Department of Justice (DOJ) and the Wisconsin Attorney General filed a “civil antitrust lawsuit… to block DFA’s proposed acquisition of three fluid milk processing plants from Dean, which are located in northeastern Illinois, Wisconsin, and New England.”  

The DOJ offered to settle the suit on the same day it filed its case if the court would approve Dairy Farmers of America Inc.’s (DFA’s) “divestiture of plants located in Harvard, Illinois; De Pere, Wisconsin; and Franklin, Massachusetts, as well as associated equipment and other assets related to fluid milk production…” The court approved of these terms, and DFA took appropriate action. 

“During its investigation, the [DOJ] also expressed concerns to DFA and Dean about the potential loss of competition if DFA were to acquire a number of Dean’s fluid milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest, and DFA subsequently ceased its efforts to acquire those plants.”

The DOJ also investigated the sale of some other milk processing plants to Prairie Farms, but decided not to oppose those sales because it concluded that the plants in question would probably shut down if Prairie Farms didn’t buy them. 

The DOJ’s interference in this bankruptcy is not unprecedented, but it is somewhat unusual. Most bankruptcy cases do not attract the DOJ’s attention. Those that do are ones where the value of the assets in question is in the millions of dollars, and their sale to a competitor would significantly decrease competition in the marketplace, or even create a monopoly. 

If you are considering filing for bankruptcy, and you are concerned there may be antitrust implications, let’s talk. Hanson & Payne is a business-minded firm that business owners and commercial lenders in Milwaukee and across the state rely on to counsel them and guide them through the bankruptcy process. We would be honored to assist you during your time of need. 

Medical Bankruptcy In The Midst Of A Pandemic

One of the weird things about the COVID-19 pandemic is its impact on our healthcare system. We were all instructed to stay home and flatten the curve so medical providers were not overwhelmed with sick patients. This led to an unanticipated consequence — a financial crisis in the healthcare industry

Many people who would otherwise seek medical treatment stayed home instead. They skipped appointments and relied on Dr. Google to diagnose their ailments. It remains to be seen how this aversion to seeking care is going to impact our nation’s health, but we do know that it has hurt many medical providers. 

Why Medical Bankruptcy Is So Common

Medical debt is one of the leading causes of bankruptcy in this country. Because medical debt is an unsecured debt, meaning the creditor has no collateral they can collect if the debtor defaults, filing for bankruptcy is a popular way for families to deal with overwhelming medical debts. Individuals and families can have most if not all of their medical debt forgiven if they file for Chapter 7 bankruptcy. If they instead file for Chapter 13 bankruptcy, the debt is put on a repayment plan and made more manageable. 

Thanks to the coronavirus crisis, medical providers are now struggling with their own medical debt problems. It turns out a public that is trying to do its part to flatten the curve, and is also afraid of catching the virus if they visit a healthcare facility, stays home instead of visiting the doctor. Most elective procedures have been put on hold, and even seriously sick patients are opting not to receive care. This has put major financial stress on healthcare providers. There is a major cash crunch across the industry that is impacting providers in big cities like Milwaukee to rural clinics up North. 

At Hanson & Payne we have been helping both patients and providers here in Wisconsin tackle their medical debts. 

Right now is a great time for patients struggling with medical debt who are not interested in filing for bankruptcy to talk with an attorney about renegotiating their debt. Providers who are strapped for cash are willing to forgive debts in exchange for a lump sum payment now, even if that payment amounts to pennies on the dollar. 

Providers have faced pushback and bad publicity for attempting to collect medical debts during the pandemic. Since they can’t bring money in this way, and they are not seeing patients, addressing expenses and debts is often the only option left. Our firm helps businesses make these kinds of deals on a regular basis. If more dire action is needed, we can also assist with a bankruptcy filing. 

The Hanson & Payne team is committed to being there for Milwaukee area families and businesses during this challenging time. Our experience representing both creditors and debtors gives us an edge at the negotiation table, and in the courtroom. If you are looking for legal counsel in this challenging time, we would be honored to take your call. Contact us today to schedule an initial consultation.

Playing with Dominoes

As we weather the financial crisis brought on by the coronavirus pandemic, we are reminded of a child playing with dominos. Pre-COVID-19, a single business’s bankruptcy would put financial stress on its suppliers and in some instances its customers. Today, we see entire supply chains and segments of the economy collapse as soon as one link in the chain begins to wobble.

To some extent, we saw this same scenario play out during the Great Recession. However, that crisis was triggered by the implosion of mortgage-backed securities. The Federal Reserve was able to step in and shore things up before all the dominos fell. 

Now, we are facing an unprecedented threat to every industry. There has been a sharp decline in demand across almost every segment of the economy, and disruptions on the supply side mirror it. The Federal government is pumping out cash, but until consumers can safely shop and travel, and afford to do so, things look bleak. 

At Hanson & Payne, we are doing the best we can to help businesses in the Milwaukee area weather the storm

Businesses Are Increasingly Filing for Bankruptcy

We have seen a significant uptick in the number of businesses considering filing for bankruptcy. Since our firm handles both Chapter 7 and Chapter 11 cases, we are well-positioned to help business owners evaluate their different options. We view ourselves as true counselors, not just paper-pushers, and we want our clients to know that they can rely on us to advise them. We are committed to helping Milwaukee area business owners do what is best for their business, not what is the easiest for us to manage from the legal perspective. 

Because we really dig into our clients’ finances and care about their businesses, we have also been able to steer a lot of clients toward bankruptcy alternatives. 

As we mentioned above, the Federal government, as well as the State of Wisconsin is pulling out all the stops when it comes to managing the financial aspects of this pandemic. There are new initiatives being announced almost daily, and we are keeping a close eye on programs we believe our clients could benefit from. 

Some businesses may also be able to avoid bankruptcy and keep the doors open by negotiating a workout. Creditors are just as stressed as their borrowers during this difficult time, and are more than willing to be flexible. If your business is facing cash shortages and needs temporary or permanent relief from its creditors, we may be able to negotiate terms of forbearance or loan modification with your creditors.

Hanson & Payne’s well-established reputation as a bankruptcy firm that knows business is what drives businesses and commercial lenders from all over Wisconsin to rely on Hanson & Payne when they find themselves teetering on the edge. If you are in this situation, we are ready to help get you back on solid footing. Please contact our office today to schedule an initial consultation.

Wisconsin Debt Collectors Told To Cool It During The COVID-19 Crisis

The Wisconsin Department of Financial Institutions has issued some emergency guidance on debt collection during the coronavirus pandemic. Both creditors and debtors need to be aware of this new guidance and consider how it impacts them. 

DFI? Guidance? 

The Wisconsin Department of Financial Institutions (DFI) is the state government agency tasked with regulating our state’s banking and financial systems, and enforcing state-level consumer protection laws.

DFI collects reports required by state law, and it sometimes sends out auditors and inspectors to make sure the reports it is receiving are accurate. 

The laws DFI enforces are passed by our state legislature, but the enforcement details are spelled out through the rulemaking process. Rules have the force of law, but are crafted by an agency. 

Guidance documents do not have the force of law. Instead, they are meant to provide everyone with insight into how the DFI is enforcing the laws and rules already on the books. 

What Is Changing? 

DFI’s emergency guidance on prohibited debt collection practices stresses that DFI is not making new rules, it is just slightly changing how it interprets existing state law in light of the pandemic:

“Chapter 427 of the [Wisconsin Consumer] Act specifies prohibited practices when attempting to collect payments under consumer credit transactions, including any “conduct which can reasonably be expected to threaten or harass the customer or a person related to the customer.” Wis. Stat. § 427.104(1)(h). The drafters of the Act did not define “harass,” but dictionaries at the time of its enactment defined it as “to annoy continually” or “disturb persistently.” This broad, context-dependent meaning allows flexibility for courts and this Department to account for new economic conditions.

“Those new conditions have arrived… Many consumers who made pre-pandemic credit purchases were planning to make payments with revenue earned this spring. For millions, that work has now been cancelled or indefinitely postponed. Affected families are rationing financial resources until this crisis abates, reserving them for food, medicine, and other essentials. They’re going to miss payments on consumer credit transactions, through no fault of their own, because that is the rational thing for them to do.

“Debt collectors aren’t going to be able to talk people into behaving irrationally, no matter how many times they call. To repeatedly “disturb” or “annoy” them anyway is the definition of harassment…”

What Does This Mean?

This guidance is the government’s way of saying it cannot totally stop debt collection during the coronavirus pandemic, but that it thinks debt collectors should stop of their own accord because the DFI may decide it is harassment. 

“Debt collectors who routinely rely on telephone calls as a debt-collection tactic should be forewarned: whether the conduct “can reasonably be expected to threaten or harass a consumer” depends on the context, and the worldwide context just shifted dramatically. Practices that may have been typical or customary under normal conditions may be deemed harassment under conditions of a global pandemic.”

The guidances goes on to say, “We cannot draw a precise boundary between permitted or prohibited communications with debtors, because each must ‘be considered in context.’”

This is not a helpful explanation. Clearly, the government is trying to persuade creditors to stop debt collection efforts. 

At Hanson & Payne, we are advising our clients to keep this guidance in mind. We are keeping a close watch on DFI’s actions, and monitoring how creditors and debtors across the state are responding to this guidance. Please contact our office if you have questions. 

When Things Go Back To Normal

The coronavirus pandemic is the most devastating disease to hit the world since the 1918 flu. Thousands of people have died, and millions more have seen their lives disrupted. Experts are predicting that it may take years for things to go back to “normal.” However, it is becoming increasingly clear that there is no universally agreed-upon definition of “normal,” particularly in the business world. 

COVID-19’s Impact On Business 

We have all made changes in our personal lives to protect ourselves and others from spreading this deadly virus. Lost in the focus on canceled social events and binge-watching tv is a recognition of how drastically our work lives have changed as well. 

Staff has been cut so only essential employees are in the office. Some businesses are discovering that nonessential employees really are nonessential, and those people may never be hired back. 

Businesses have embraced telework, which may never have become the norm otherwise, but is now showing its value. The line between work time and leisure time is growing ever more blurry. 

The government has forcibly closed a number of businesses. Owners wonder whether consumers will ever return after discovering they can do without, or find similar products and services online. 

A New Normal

When all this is over, normal is going to look very different thanks to these and other changes. At Hanson & Payne we are prepared to help businesses in the Milwaukee area adjust to the new normal. We believe bankruptcy will be an important tool for many companies adjusting to post-corona life. 

Bankruptcy Is A Tool

Bankruptcy is often used by struggling businesses to restructure and get back on their feet. Chapter 11 of the bankruptcy code was specifically designed for this purpose. 

Chapter 11 is used by companies who are not ready to throw in the towel just yet. While a Chapter 11 case is pending, a filer has the freedom to attempt to negotiate new contracts with creditors, landlords, and labor unions. Negotiations like these are going to be particularly important as businesses struggle to get back up and running at full capacity. 

A company may also use Chapter 11 as an opportunity to settle pending litigation if it is facing unknown liability. The fear that the business will completely shut down if negotiations are unsuccessful gives the filer some leverage and motivates everyone to make a deal. 

Contrast this with a Chapter 7 bankruptcy, where the goal is winding down operations. Assets are sold off, creditors paid whatever is possible, and then the business is shuttered. There is no attempt to keep the business going, even though parts of it might be profitable if they are sold off.

Milwaukee’s Bankruptcy Firm 

Hanson & Payne, LLC is a trusted advisor to businesses in the Milwaukee area. We have a reputation for being business-minded in an industry that is often criticized for not understanding that legal action is a means to an end, not an end in and of itself. If you are looking for legal counsel in this challenging time, we would be honored to take your call. Contact us today to schedule an initial consultation.

Loan Modification May Help Your Business Avoid Bankruptcy

One of the things that sets Hanson & Payne apart from other bankruptcy attorneys in the Milwaukee area is our experience working with creditors. We have a strong relationship with many of the major banks in the great Milwaukee area because we have represented them in commercial loan transactions, bankruptcy matters, or insurance disputes at one time or another. 

While some debtors decide not to hire us after finding out we work for both debtors and creditors, the smart ones realize the edge our diverse practice gives them at the negotiating table. 

Over the years, we have developed strong relationships with the lenders and other attorneys whose cooperation and patience are a necessary component of any successful loan modification. We also know which lenders are willing to negotiate with a debtor in order to help keep a business afloat, and what sort of deals they have cut in similar situations. We put this knowledge to use for our business clients who wish to stave off bankruptcy and remain in business. 

If you are interested in seeking a business loan modification or workout, you need to be proactive. Don’t wait until you are several payments behind before taking action. (If you are already in default, take action right away.)  Lenders are more willing to work with “good” debtors who have been paying than those that they perceive as “bad” because they have missed a payment or two. 

Preparing to Talk to Your Lender

Reinforce your lender’s opinion that you are being proactive and addressing your financial problems head-on by doing some advance planning before giving your lender a call. 

First, gather up relevant financial documents: 

  • All the documents related to your current loan;
  • Recent tax returns;
  • Bank statements;
  • Your current business ledger; and 
  • Anything else you think might be helpful. 

Every lender handles their modifications differently, and one lender may require less or different information than another, but having as much information as possible on hand shows you are taking this seriously. 

It is also a good idea to update your business plan. Be prepared to show your lender how you intend to address the issues you are facing and increase your profits over the long-run. 

Finally, you will need a hardship letter explaining your current situation. This letter is something we suggest working on with someone who has loan modification experience. It needs to succinctly explain your situation, using facts and figures to bolster your request. 

While we always recommend getting professional help if you are seeking a loan modification, we urge you to be cautious about who you rely on for assistance. There is a whole industry of “loan modification specialists” who make it sound like they are particularly skilled at modifications. The truth is, most of these people are nothing more than paper-pushers who serve as a middleman between you and your lender. They cannot offer legal advice, and their financial advice is suspect at best because they are not regulated or licensed. The worst of these folks are scam artists who are looking for easy identity theft targets. 

Our firm has many years of experience seeking loan modifications on behalf of business owners in the Milwaukee area. If you are interested in seeking a modification, but you don’t know where to start, start by contacting our office to schedule an initial consultation.  

Are the Boy Scouts Dodging Responsibility By Filing For Bankruptcy?

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) has a rich history in the Milwaukee area. There are over 8,000 scouts in Kenosha, Milwaukee, and Racine counties, and they do lots of merit-badge earning and community service. When the BSA declared bankruptcy earlier this year, many people feared that the organization would soon cease to exist. Others suggested the bankruptcy was allowing the organization to shirk responsibility for the harm it has caused. 

The reality is the bankruptcy is probably a boon to the struggling organization and is a way for the BSA to finally take responsibility for its actions instead of sweeping them under the rug. 

What Led to the BSA’s Bankruptcy?

The BSA has been in decline for decades. Its membership peaked in the early 1970s. In recent years, it has tried to boost membership by allowing girls and openly LGBTQ scouts to join its ranks. These changes have helped a little bit, but they also caused the Mormon church to pull its support from the organization and start a competing group. 

Bankruptcy will allow the organization to restructure and move forward with a new vision for the future. What this means for local councils is unclear. It is possible that the BSA will consolidate councils, lay off staff, and sell off some of its campgrounds. We’ll have to wait and see what happens. 

Hopefully, the organization will also take its time in bankruptcy to do some soul-searching. Almost since its founding, over 100 years ago, BSA knew it was a magnet for sexual predators looking for easy access to young boys. Instead of calling attention to the problem and attempting to do something about it, the BSA kept secret files on volunteers it knew or suspected were abusing scouts. They rarely shared any of the information they had with the police. 

One of the only things BSA did to try and curb abuse was ban LGBTQ scouts and volunteers. It only recently acknowledged that being queer does not make you a sexual predator.

Now, the day of reckoning has come. The BSA was forced to file for bankruptcy because it was being hit with so many lawsuits by abused scouts. If the organization continued to fight each of these cases individually, it would be bled dry. 

Why This Matters

Filing for bankruptcy will allow the organization to address the claims against it head-on. Other organizations in similar circumstances have set aside pots of money that victims can make claims against under the supervision of the bankruptcy court. The victims will have a quick and easy way to make a claim for compensation, and the organization will take a hit, but be able to regroup. 

It is important to note that if this is indeed what happens, victims will only have this one shot at justice. The bankruptcy takes all potential and outstanding claims and rolls them into one. This is why some people claim BSA is shirking its responsibility. This is a valid concern, but it is also likely that many abused scouts would not make any claim at all if the bankruptcy did not happen. They would either suffer in silence because bringing your own individual lawsuit is quite the undertaking. Or they would file suit too late, and the organization would be out of money and closed down by the time their lawsuit was tried to a verdict.

If you have questions about the Boy Scout Bankruptcy, or how bankruptcy impacts liability, let’s talk. Contact us today to schedule an initial consultation. 

Milwaukee May Soon Lose A Bankruptcy Judge

There may soon be a vacancy on the bench in the United States Bankruptcy Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin. Judge Brett Ludwig, who currently serves as a bankruptcy judge here in Milwaukee, has been tapped by President Trump to fill a long-vacant seat on Wisconsin’s federal district court. This is quite the promotion. 

Moving On Up? 

However, Judge Ludwig is not switching offices just yet. His appointment must be confirmed by the United State’s Senate. According to the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, Wisconsin Senators Tammy Baldwin (D) and Ron Johnson (R) both approve of Ludwig’s nomination. Their bipartisan support is a sign that Judge Ludwig’s confirmation is likely, although the timeline is uncertain. 

Judge Ludwig has served as a bankruptcy judge since February 2017. Prior to that, he was a partner at a large Wisconsin law firm. He is a graduate of University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point and the University of Minnesota Law School.

As mentioned above, if Ludwig is confirmed, he will fill a federal court judgeship that has been vacant for some time. He would be taking the place of Judge Rudolph Randa, who passed away in 2016. It is not uncommon for federal district court seats to sit vacant because there can be political hurdles to filling them. 

Switch Would Open Up A Seat On Milwaukee’s Bankruptcy Court

Thankfully, bankruptcy court seats are not typically so difficult to fill. While federal district court judges must be appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate, U.S. bankruptcy court judges are appointed by a majority vote of the circuit court judges in the jurisdiction in which they sit. It typically takes around six months for a new judge to be appointed when a bankruptcy court vacancy opens up. 

One reason for this difference in selection is that bankruptcy court judges are not awarded lifetime tenure. Instead, they are appointed to renewable 14-year terms. In practice, many of these judges end up serving multiple terms, often until they retire. It is understandably difficult to resume private practice after being in public office for over a decade. 

A Full-Service Bankruptcy Firm

The Hanson & Payne team is paying close attention to Judge Ludwig’s nomination, and any potential bankruptcy court vacancy that may open up should he be confirmed as a district court judge. We will notify any clients who have cases before him if he is suddenly swept into his new role. We will also alert our clients if it appears a vacancy on the bankruptcy court is impeding court operations, and slowing down cases. 

If you are a Milwaukee area resident or business who is considering filing for bankruptcy, the Hanson & Payne team is ready to help. Our experienced attorneys handle both personal and commercial bankruptcies. We also do quite a bit of work for creditors and local banks. Please contact our office today to schedule an initial consultation. 

Bankruptcy Saves The Bull From Sheriff’s Sale

Five years ago, Golf Digest named The Bull at Pinehurst Farms, located in Sheboygan Falls, one of the top 70 public golf courses in America. This year, the Jack Nicklaus designed course was almost sold at a sheriff’s sale. The sale was called off minutes before it was scheduled to start because the course’s owners filed for Chapter 7 bankruptcy.

How Did Filing for Bankruptcy Save the Golf Course?

The Sheboygan Press is reporting that a minority owner of the course is attempting to pull together enough financing to buy it. Filing for bankruptcy gives the potential buyers more time to put together a deal. “Richard Hahn — the attorney for The Bull’s creditor, Wisconsin Bank & Trust — said that The Bull and its owners have been unwilling to pay what is actually owed on the loan. The default on the loan is around $4.2 million, but Hahn said the owners are willing to pay about half of that. That won’t cut it for the bank, he said.”

It will be interesting to see what happens to this course for several reasons. 

First, we are seeing several courses in Wisconsin close due to golf’s declining popularity. Younger folks find the game too slow, long, and expensive. This is changing the golf industry in a big way. 

Due to golf’s decline in popularity, it is going to be harder for developers to get financing for golf course building and development. This puts a crunch on the middle of the market. We’ll always have the American Club on one end of the spectrum, and mini golf in the Dells on the other, but what will be left for the rest of us? This is the second reason it is going to be interesting to see what happens to The Bull. 

Finally, this is a very public example of one of the ways Chapter 7 can be used by business owners to help them hold on to their property. In this case, a minority owner is looking for financing in order to buy the property from the majority owners and current creditors. This is not an uncommon occurrence. Business owners frequently use Chapter 7 to get a fresh start or, as in this case, buy themselves some time to get their financial house in order. 

Individuals can also use Chapter 7 as a sort of financial reset button. While Chapter 7 bankruptcies are often called liquidation bankruptcies, when an individual files under this chapter it is more about wiping the slate clean of debt than getting rid of excess inventory, property, or contractual obligations. 

Who can file for Chapter 7 Bankruptcy? 

The ideal Chapter 7 candidate will have primarily unsecured debt (ex. credit cards, medical bills, utility bills, payday loans, etc…) and be current with any secured debt payments such as mortgage and car/lease payments. If this is the case, the individual will typically be permitted to exempt (or keep) most of their personal property. 

Our firm files a lot of Chapter 7 bankruptcies, for both businesses and individuals. If you are in financial trouble, and think bankruptcy may be in your future, let’s talk. Contact us today to schedule an initial consultation.